Ticks are small spider – like acarids and fleas are insects, but
these two tiny creatures have at least one thing in common – they are both parasites
that feed on your dog’s blood and can cause a lot of discomfort and more serious
Flea bites may go unnoticed on some pets, cause slight irritation in others and
produce extensive itching, red lesions, hair loss and even ulcers in those animals
with flea allergy dermatitis, which is the result of extreme sensitivity to flea
saliva. Severe flea infestations can cause anemia, especially in puppies. Fleas
can also transmit several diseases, as well as tapeworm. Ticks are “vectors” or
carriers of a number of diseases, including Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted
fever which can sometimes be transmitted to humans.
Adult fleas are wingless insects, generally smaller than a sesame seed, who feed
on the blood of animals. Their proportionately enlarged back pair of legs gives
them an extraordinary jumping ability. Hanging on to your pet’s fur with their claws,
their needle-like mouth parts bite through the skin to suck up blood.
If one flea finds your dog an attractive food source, you can
be sure that other fleas will, too! They mate, with females laying 30-50 eggs per
day. These eggs will drop to the ground within 8 hours and, as soon as 2 days later
flea larvae will hatch and hide in dark places on the ground, on carpets or in upholstery.
After about a week of feeding on adult flea droppings, crumbs, flakes of skin, etc.,
the larvae spin cocoons to become pupae. The pupae can remain in this stage for
very long periods of time. As early as a week later, the pupae develop into adult
fleas and emerge from their cocoons when they sense that a dog or other animal host,
is near. The cycle – which can take as little as 12 days or as long as 180 days
– can then begin again.
Ticks are wingless creatures that live exclusively on the blood of animals for three
of the four stages of their life cycle. They are equipped with an apparatus called
Haller’s organ which senses heat, carbon dioxide and other stimuli to allow the
ticks to locate the presence of an animal food source. Once found, they crawl on
and embed their mouth parts into the animal’s skin and proceed to suck up its blood.
You should inspect your pet regularly for ticks, especially if
they have been outside in areas where there are woods or tall grasses. A thorough
combing within 4 to 6 hours of exposure to such environments can help prevent ticks
from attaching themselves to feast on your pet. Should you find a tick, it should
be removed immediately, as the longer it is attached to its host, the greater the
chance for disease. Do not touch the tick. Wear gloves and use tweezers to carefully
grasp the exposed section of the tick’s body near your pet’s skin. Gently pull until
the tick lets go. To dispose of the tick, wrap it in several tissues and flush it
down the toilet. Do not crush, burn or suffocate it, as any one of those actions
may spread infectious bacteria.
Controlling fleas and ticks
The best way to control flea problems is to prevent them from happening in the first
place. Fortunately, developments in veterinary parasite control in recent years
have made the twofold goal of eliminating fleas on pets and preventing further infestations
much easier to achieve. Available for both dogs and cats, new insecticides and insect
growth regulators in easy-to-use topical or oral forms not only eliminate any existing
fleas, but also work long-term to prevent future infestations. This is accomplished
either by killing the parasites before they can reproduce or by preventing their
eggs from developing into normal adult fleas. Consult your veterinarian for advice
about the proper product for your pet. Furthermore, thorough daily vacuuming of
high-traffic areas and frequent washing of your pet’s bedding will also go a long
way in reducing the flea population in your home.
Some of the same types of topical or oral products used to control flea infestation
are also effective against ticks. Such treatments should be combined with daily
examinations and tick removal for those pets, especially dogs, who are frequently
outdoors in areas with high tick populations. Ask your veterinarian for information
about the situation in your locality. Clearing brush and long grasses and removing
leaves, grass clippings and other organic debris will also help reduce the presence
of ticks by disturbing their natural outdoor habitats.
When a parasite picks your pet for a meal
If, despite your best efforts at control, you find that fleas or ticks have crawled
(or jumped) on board your pet, you will have to use a product that will kill and/or
repel the parasites. These include once-a-month topical treatments, or more regular
use of sprays, powders, dips, shampoos, collars and, to combat fleas, oral or injectable
medication. Once again, you should ask your veterinarian for advice about what the
most appropriate product is for your pet. And remember, it is perfectly normal to
see live fleas or ticks on a pet immediately after a topical treatment, spray, shampoo,
collar, etc. is applied. Many believe that this means the product is not working,
but the fleas or ticks have to fully absorb the product before they will be affected,
which may take from a few hours to a few days.
Facts about fleas
- Worldwide, there are about 3,000 different types of fleas, but the cat flea (Ctenocephalides
felis) is the most common to be found on dogs and cats.
- Adult fleas can jump 600 times an hour. Each jump, in terms of the flea’s size,
is the equivalent of a person clearing a 50-story building.
- The record jump for a flea is 13 inches.
- In just 30 days, 25 adult female fleas can multiply to 250,000 fleas.
Tips about ticks
- A female tick can lay up to 3,000 eggs.
- Except for eggs, ticks need a blood meal to progress to each stage of their life
- Some ticks can live for more than a year without a meal.
- In very rare cases, toxins secreted by ticks can cause pet paralysis.